Historically, balloons have been used in surgery for a variety of applications. Over the past decades, balloons have been used by surgeons for retaining means (Foley catheter), extraction and occlusion (Fogarty catheter), tamponade (Sengstaken-Blakemore tube) as well as other uses such as dilation and calibration. The pioneering efforts of Gauer and Kieturakis have broadened the use of balloons for a new surgical application - dissection. An important feature of balloon dissection is that it allows the surgeon to create a new operative working space in which a surgical procedure can be performed. Currently, a particularly useful working space is the region immediately outside the peritoneum, frequently termed the extraperitoneal space. A variety of procedures can be performed laparoscopically in the extraperitoneal space such as herniorrhaphy, bladder neck suspension, lymph node dissection, and varicocelectomy.