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Secondary Metabolites of the Rice Blast Fungus Pyricularia oryzae: Biosynthesis and Biological Function.

Authors
  • Motoyama, Takayuki1
  • 1 Chemical Biology Research Group, RIKEN CSRS, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. , (Japan)
Type
Published Article
Journal
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Nov 18, 2020
Volume
21
Issue
22
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/ijms21228698
PMID: 33218033
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Plant pathogenic fungi produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites with unique and complex structures. However, most fungal secondary metabolism genes are poorly expressed under laboratory conditions. Moreover, the relationship between pathogenicity and secondary metabolites remains unclear. To activate silent gene clusters in fungi, successful approaches such as epigenetic control, promoter exchange, and heterologous expression have been reported. Pyricularia oryzae, a well-characterized plant pathogenic fungus, is the causal pathogen of rice blast disease. P. oryzae is also rich in secondary metabolism genes. However, biosynthetic genes for only four groups of secondary metabolites have been well characterized in this fungus. Biosynthetic genes for two of the four groups of secondary metabolites have been identified by activating secondary metabolism. This review focuses on the biosynthesis and roles of the four groups of secondary metabolites produced by P. oryzae. These secondary metabolites include melanin, a polyketide compound required for rice infection; pyriculols, phytotoxic polyketide compounds; nectriapyrones, antibacterial polyketide compounds produced mainly by symbiotic fungi including endophytes and plant pathogens; and tenuazonic acid, a well-known mycotoxin produced by various plant pathogenic fungi and biosynthesized by a unique NRPS-PKS enzyme.

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