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Search for Tensor, Vector, and Scalar Polarizations in the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background.

Authors
  • Abbott, B P1
  • Abbott, R1
  • Abbott, T D2
  • Acernese, F3, 4
  • Ackley, K5, 6
  • Adams, C7
  • Adams, T8
  • Addesso, P9
  • Adhikari, R X1
  • Adya, V B10
  • Affeldt, C10
  • Afrough, M11
  • Agarwal, B12
  • Agathos, M13
  • Agatsuma, K14
  • Aggarwal, N15
  • Aguiar, O D16
  • Aiello, L17, 18
  • Ain, A19
  • Ajith, P20
  • And 1079 more
  • 1 LIGO, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.
  • 2 Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA.
  • 3 Università di Salerno, Fisciano, I-84084 Salerno, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 4 INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 5 University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA.
  • 6 OzGrav, School of Physics & Astronomy, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 7 LIGO Livingston Observatory, Livingston, Louisiana 70754, USA.
  • 8 Laboratoire d'Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules (LAPP), Université Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, F-74941 Annecy, France. , (France)
  • 9 University of Sannio at Benevento, I-82100 Benevento, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, I-80100 Napoli, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 10 Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-30167 Hannover, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 11 The University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38677, USA.
  • 12 NCSA, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.
  • 13 University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 14 Nikhef, Science Park, 1098 XG Amsterdam, Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 15 LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
  • 16 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, 12227-010 São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 17 Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI), I-67100 L'Aquila, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 18 INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67100 Assergi, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 19 Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, Maharashtra 411007, India. , (India)
  • 20 International Centre for Theoretical Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560089, India. , (India)
  • 21 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201, USA.
  • 22 Leibniz Universität Hannover, D-30167 Hannover, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 23 Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 24 INFN, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 25 OzGrav, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 26 Laboratoire des Matériaux Avancés (LMA), CNRS/IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France. , (France)
  • 27 SUPA, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 28 LAL, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91898 Orsay, France. , (France)
  • 29 California State University Fullerton, Fullerton, California 92831, USA.
  • 30 European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), I-56021 Cascina, Pisa, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 31 Università di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 32 INFN, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Roma, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 33 Universität Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 34 INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 35 Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 36 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, Arizona 86301, USA.
  • 37 Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 38 APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France. , (France)
  • 39 Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon 34141, Korea. , (North Korea)
  • 40 West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA.
  • 41 Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 42 INFN, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 43 Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244, USA.
  • 44 University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.
  • 45 SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 46 LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA.
  • 47 Caltech CaRT, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.
  • 48 Wigner RCP, RMKI, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 29-33, Hungary. , (Hungary)
  • 49 Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.
  • 50 Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
  • 51 Università di Camerino, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-62032 Camerino, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 52 Università di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, I-35131 Padova, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 53 INFN, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 54 Institute of Physics, Eötvös University, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Budapest 1117, Hungary. , (Hungary)
  • 55 Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-716 Warsaw, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 56 Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623, USA.
  • 57 University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 58 INFN, Sezione di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 59 RRCAT, Indore Madhya Pradesh 452013, India. , (India)
  • 60 Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia.
  • 61 SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 62 The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
  • 63 OzGrav, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 64 Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 65 Artemis, Université Côte d'Azur, Observatoire Côte d'Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4, France. , (France)
  • 66 Institut FOTON, CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, F-35042 Rennes, France. , (France)
  • 67 Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA.
  • 68 University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA.
  • 69 Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, UPMC-Sorbonne Universités, CNRS, ENS-PSL Research University, Collège de France, F-75005 Paris, France. , (France)
  • 70 Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota 55057, USA.
  • 71 OzGrav, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 72 Astronomical Observatory Warsaw University, 00-478 Warsaw, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 73 VU University Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 74 University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.
  • 75 School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, USA. , (Georgia)
  • 76 Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France. , (France)
  • 77 Università di Napoli 'Federico II,' Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, I-80126 Napoli, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 78 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA.
  • 79 Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Genova, I-16146 Genova, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 80 RESCEU, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 81 Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. , (China)
  • 82 Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA.
  • 83 Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022, USA.
  • 84 Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 85 Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, I-00184 Roma, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 86 National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu City, 30013 Taiwan, Republic of China. , (China)
  • 87 Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 88 Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration & Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA.
  • 89 University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
  • 90 Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea. , (North Korea)
  • 91 The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong. , (Hong Kong SAR China)
  • 92 INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, I-35122 Padova, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 93 INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Applications, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 94 OzGrav, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 95 Università di Roma 'La Sapienza,' I-00185 Roma, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 96 Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels 1050, Belgium. , (Belgium)
  • 97 Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, California 94928, USA.
  • 98 Departamento de Matemáticas, Universitat de València, E-46100 Burjassot, València, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 99 Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana 59717, USA.
  • 100 Universitat de les Illes Balears, IAC3-IEEC, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 101 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, Texas 78520, USA.
  • 102 Bellevue College, Bellevue, Washington 98007, USA.
  • 103 Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428, India. , (India)
  • 104 The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 105 Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche, Fisiche e Informatiche, Università di Parma, I-43124 Parma, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 106 INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Gruppo Collegato di Parma, I-43124 Parma, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 107 California State University, Los Angeles, 5151 State University Dr, Los Angeles, California 90032, USA.
  • 108 Università di Trento, Dipartimento di Fisica, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 109 Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey 07043, USA. , (Jersey)
  • 110 National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 111 Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8, Canada. , (Canada)
  • 112 Observatori Astronòmic, Universitat de València, E-46980 Paterna, València, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 113 School of Mathematics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FD, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 114 University and Institute of Advanced Research, Koba Institutional Area, Gandhinagar Gujarat 382007, India. , (India)
  • 115 IISER-TVM, CET Campus, Trivandrum Kerala 695016, India. , (India)
  • 116 University of Szeged, Dóm tér 9, Szeged 6720, Hungary. , (Hungary)
  • 117 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.
  • 118 Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400005, India. , (India)
  • 119 INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, I-80131, Napoli, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 120 Università degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo," I-61029 Urbino, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 121 INFN, Sezione di Firenze, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 122 Physik-Institut, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland. , (Switzerland)
  • 123 American University, Washington, D.C. 20016, USA.
  • 124 University of Biał ystok, 15-424 Biał ystok, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 125 University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 126 University of Washington Bothell, 18115 Campus Way NE, Bothell, Washington 98011, USA.
  • 127 Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod 603950, Russia.
  • 128 Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055, Korea. , (North Korea)
  • 129 Inje University Gimhae, South Gyeongsang 50834, Korea. , (North Korea)
  • 130 National Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Daejeon 34047, Korea. , (North Korea)
  • 131 NCBJ, 05-400 Świerk-Otwock, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 132 Institute of Mathematics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00656 Warsaw, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 133 Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, Michigan 49242, USA.
  • 134 Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea. , (North Korea)
  • 135 Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea. , (North Korea)
  • 136 NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35811, USA.
  • 137 ESPCI, CNRS, F-75005 Paris, France. , (France)
  • 138 Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70813, USA.
  • 139 College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187, USA.
  • 140 Centre Scientifique de Monaco, 8 quai Antoine Ier MC-98000, Monaco. , (Monaco)
  • 141 Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600036, India. , (India)
  • 142 IISER-Kolkata, Mohanpur, West Bengal 741252, India. , (India)
  • 143 Whitman College, 345 Boyer Avenue, Walla Walla, Washington 99362 USA.
  • 144 Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076, India. , (India)
  • 145 Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 146 Université de Lyon, F-69361 Lyon, France. , (France)
  • 147 Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, New York 14456, USA.
  • 148 OzGrav, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 149 Janusz Gil Institute of Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, 65-265 Zielona Góra, Poland. , (Poland)
  • 150 University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.
  • 151 King's College London, University of London, London WC2R 2LS, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 152 Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar Ahmedabad Gujarat 382424, India. , (India)
  • 153 Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Sangareddy, Khandi, Telangana 502285, India. , (India)
  • 154 International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte 59078-970, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 155 Andrews University, Berrien Springs, Michigan 49104, USA.
  • 156 Università di Siena, I-53100 Siena, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 157 Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas 78212, USA.
  • 158 Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen, Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 159 Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas 79699, USA.
  • 160 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Physical Review Letters
Publisher
American Physical Society
Publication Date
May 18, 2018
Volume
120
Issue
20
Pages
201102–201102
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.201102
PMID: 29864331
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically polarized gravitational waves. We find no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to Ω_{0}^{T}<5.58×10^{-8}, Ω_{0}^{V}<6.35×10^{-8}, and Ω_{0}^{S}<1.08×10^{-7} at a reference frequency f_{0}=25 Hz.

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