Clinical aspects dealing with the impairment of nephrogenesis in preterm and low birth weight babies were intensely researched. In this context it was shown that quite different noxae can harm nephron formation, and that the morphological damage in the fetal kidney is rather complex. Some pathological findings show that the impairment leads to changes in developing glomeruli that are restricted to the maturation zone of the outer cortex in the fetal human kidney. Other data show also imprints on the stages of nephron anlage including the niche, the pretubular aggregate, the renal vesicle, and comma- and S-shaped bodies located in the overlying nephrogenic zone of the rodent and human kidneys. During our investigations it was noticed that the stages of nephron anlage in the fetal human kidney during the phase of late gestation have not been described in detail. To contribute, these stages were recorded along with corresponding images. The initial nephron formation in the rodent kidney served as a reference. Finally, the known imprints left by the impairment in both specimens were listed and discussed. In sum, the relatively paucity of data on nephron formation in the fetal human kidney during the late phase of gestation is a call to start with intense research so that concepts for a therapeutic prolongation of nephrogenesis can be designed.