Scrotal calculi are freely mobile calcified bodies or stones located between the layers of the tunica vaginalis of the testis. The literature on this relatively rare benign lesion consists mostly of case reports. In most cases, scrotal calculi are found incidentally during ultrasound examination. Now with the application of high-frequency ultrasonography, the detection rate of scrotal calculi is gradually increasing. This article summarizes the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of scrotal calculi.