Aim: The arterial pressure–volume index (API) and arterial velocity–pulse index (AVI) are novel measurement indices of arterial stiffness. This study was performed to examine the screening validity of the API and AVI for preclinical atherosclerosis in Japanese community-dwelling adults. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 2,809 participants aged ≥40 years who underwent Japanese national medical check-ups from 2014 to 2016. Preclinical atherosclerosis was defined as a mean carotid intima–media thickness (CIMT) of ≥ 1.0 mm. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the association of CIMT with API and AVI, adjusting for body mass index, sex, and the Framingham –D'Agostino score. We also examined receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivity, and specificity to predict preclinical atherosclerosis defined by the CIMT. The cardio-ankle vascular index was also measured for comparison with the API and AVI. Results: Of 2,809 participants, 68 (2.4%) had preclinical atherosclerosis. In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the API and AVI maintained a positive association with the mean CIMT (B =2.6, P =0.009 and B =3.7, P =0.001, respectively). The cut-offs of the API and AVI that demonstrated better sensitivity and specificity for detection of subclinical atherosclerosis were 31 [area under the curve (AUC), 0.64] and 29 (AUC, 0.60). Conclusions: The API and AVI were positively associated with preclinical carotid atherosclerosis independent of the participants' cardiovascular risk. The ability of these scores to predict carotid atherosclerosis could make them a useful screening tool for atherosclerosis.