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Screening and Characterization Strategies for Nanobodies Targeting Membrane Proteins.

Authors
  • Veugelen, S1
  • Dewilde, M1
  • De Strooper, B2
  • Chávez-Gutiérrez, L3
  • 1 University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; VIB Center for Brain and Disease, Leuven, Belgium.
  • 2 University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; VIB Center for Brain and Disease, Leuven, Belgium; UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom.
  • 3 University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; VIB Center for Brain and Disease, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
Methods in enzymology
Publication Date
2017
Volume
584
Pages
59–97
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/bs.mie.2016.10.029
PMID: 28065273
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

The study of membrane protein function and structure requires their successful detection, expression, solubilization, and/or reconstitution, which poses a challenging task and relies on the availability of suitable tools. Several research groups have successfully applied Nanobodies in the purification, as well as the functional and structural characterization of membrane proteins. Nanobodies are small, single-chain antibody fragments originating from camelids presenting on average a longer CDR3 which enables them to bind in cavities and clefts (such as active and allosteric sites). Notably, Nanobodies generally bind conformational epitopes making them very interesting tools to stabilize, dissect, and characterize specific protein conformations. In the clinic, several Nanobodies are under evaluation either as potential drug candidates or as diagnostic tools. In recent years, we have successfully generated high-affinity, conformation-sensitive anti-γ-secretase Nanobodies. γ-Secretase is a multimeric membrane protease involved in processing of the amyloid precursor protein with high clinical relevance as mutations in its catalytic subunit (Presenilin) cause early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Advancing our knowledge on the mechanisms governing γ-secretase intramembrane proteolysis through various strategies may lead to novel therapeutic avenues for Alzheimer's disease. In this chapter, we present the strategies we have developed and applied for the screening and characterization of anti-γ-secretase Nanobodies. These protocols could be of help in the generation of Nanobodies targeting other membrane proteins.

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