This paper discusses Open Access to scientific knowledge and its impacts on research. It overviews some of the major issues regarding the use of information technologies in scholarly communication activities, highlighting recent issues such as repository selfarchiving (green road) and Open Access journals (golden road). Such issues are focused both as a reaction of researchers to the current business models of commercial scholarly publishers and as an awareness of the increasingly impact of documents available in Open Access. It adds to this discussion information about the necessary policies to fully implement Open Access. Authors describe the main technology facilities that support Open Access, such as OAI compliant Repositories and Journal Management systems. Moreover, future perspectives that should guide academic and government policies, decisions and actions that can assure Open Access, particularly in Portuguese Speaking Countries, are discussed.