Sauropus androgynus L. Merr is an underexploited perennial shrub traditionally used as a medicinal plant in South Asia and Southeast Asia. The plant is regarded as not just a green vegetable for diet but a traditional herb for certain aliments. For instance, it has traditionally been used to relieve fever, to treat ulcers and diabetes, to promote lactation and eyesight, as well as reducing obesity. This paper aims to review the botany, phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacological activities of S. androgynus and discuss the known chemical constituents combined with S. androgynus-induced bronchiolitis obliterans for providing new ideas to the following mechanism of the disease and pharmacology research of the plant. The data presented in this review were collected from published literatures as well as the electronic databases of PubMed, CNKI, Web of Science, SCI finder, ACS, Science Direct, Wiley, Springer, Taylor, Google Scholar and a number of unpublished resources, (e.g. books, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations). The scientific literature indicates that S. androgynous is a valuable and popular herbal medicine whose nutritional value is also higher than that of other commonly used vegetable. Phytochemical analyses identified high content of flavonoids and polyphenols as the major bioactive substances in S. androgynous. Crude extracts and phytochemical constituents isolated from S. androgynus show a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, skin whitening, anti-diabetic and immunoregulatory. The tradition uses, such as increasing lactation, treating ulcers and diabetes, and reducing obesity, have been evaluated and studied with various methods. Numerous reports have been revealed the unusual link between the consumption of S. androgynus and induction of a chronic and irreversible obstructive disease (namely bronchiolitis obliterans), indicating that the toxicity and side effects of the plant presently used in health care and medicine are a major area of concern. Though little importance of this multigreen plant was attached, S. androgynus has notable phytochemical constituents and various pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity activities. Studies have firmly established the association between excessive consumption of the uncooked S. androgynus juice over a period of time and the occurrence of bronchiolitis obliterans. It is unsuited to ingestion of excessive S. androgynous before fully understanding the pathogenesis and induction mechanism of this fatal disease. S. androgynus-induced bronchiolitis obliterans, phytochemistry together with of pharmacology for traditional uses of S. androgynus still needed further investigation. Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.