Introduction: Dentistry is developing new concepts of early care and health maintenance, based on integrality principle to transform daily life and health practices. Health promotion practices empower mothers to a responsibility to care child’s health including oral health. Objectives: describe the oral health conditions of children from zero to three years from mother's view; in order to evaluate the oral health of children from 0 to 36 months and of theirs mothers; To verify the relation between children and their mothers carie index; identify mothers’ oral health care and the meaning of child oral health care. Method: we used a Qualitative, cross-sectional study to collect data with a semi-structured questionnaire. We use mainly Kappa index in the study for statistical analysis and categorical analysis for qualitative discourses. The research performed at a Family Health Unit in a city from São Paulo countryside with a sample of 93 mothers and 93 children. Results: Quantitatively, we observed the presence of moderate (43.01%) and high (22.58%) carie lesions, aesthetic valorization, the tooth maintenance, because of the pain in the process Carie installation, and mainly the aesthetics and public opinion. Qualitatively, we found four categories: 1) Knowing carie, 2) Understanding oral health as body care, absence of carie and pain, 3) Deciduous teeth in relation to permanent teeth: importance revealed by mothers, 4) Valuing oral aesthetics. Conclusions:There is a fair agreement between the mother's response and the researcher's evaluation regarding the oral health conditions of the children. It is understood that mothers, for the most part, know the state of oral health of the child. In the assessment of oral health of children, caries lesions were found in moderate to high prevalence, presenting a significant relationship with the oral health of mothers. Finally, in the meaning attributed by mothers to care for oral health, it is concluded that they value dental aesthetics, often to the detriment of oral health itself, pointing to a social significance of oral health.