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Satisfactory clinical outcome of operative and non-operative treatment of avulsion fracture of the hamstring origin with treatment selection based on extent of displacement: a systematic review.

Authors
  • Nauta, Hijleke J A1, 2, 3
  • van der Made, Anne D4, 5, 6
  • Tol, Johannes L1, 2, 3, 7
  • Reurink, Gustaaf1, 2, 3
  • Kerkhoffs, Gino M1, 2, 3
  • 1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 2 Academic Center for Evidence-Based Sports Medicine (ACES), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 3 Amsterdam Collaboration for Health and Safety in Sports (ACHSS), AMC/VUmc IOC Research Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. , (Netherlands)
  • 4 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. [email protected] , (Netherlands)
  • 5 Academic Center for Evidence-Based Sports Medicine (ACES), Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. [email protected] , (Netherlands)
  • 6 Amsterdam Collaboration for Health and Safety in Sports (ACHSS), AMC/VUmc IOC Research Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. [email protected] , (Netherlands)
  • 7 Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar. , (Qatar)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2021
Volume
29
Issue
6
Pages
1813–1821
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00167-020-06222-y
PMID: 32809117
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

To compare outcome of operative and non-operative treatment of avulsion fractures of the hamstring origin, with minor (< 1.5 cm) and major (≥ 1.5 cm) displacement, and early (≤ 4 weeks) and delayed (> 4 weeks) surgery. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus. A quality assessment was performed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Eight studies with 90 patients (mean age: 16 years) were included. All studies had low methodological quality (PEDro score ≤ 5). Operative treatment yielded a return to preinjury activity rate (RTPA) of 87% (95% CI: 68-95), return to sports (RTS) rate of 100% (95% CI: 82-100), Harris hip score (HHS) of 99 (range 96-100) and a University of California Los Angeles activity scale (UCLA) score of 100%. Non-operative treatment yielded a RTPA rate of 100% (95% CI:68-100), RTS rate of 86% (95% CI: 69-94), HHS score of 99 (range 96-100), and non-union rate of 18% (95% CI: 9-34). All patients with minor displacement were treated non-operatively (RTPA: 100% [95% CI: 21-100], RTS: 100% [95% CI: 51-100]). For major displacement, operative treatment led to RTPA and RTS rates of 86% (95% CI: 65-95) and 100% (95% CI: 84-100), and 0% (0/1, 95% CI: 0-79) and 100% (95% CI: 51-100) for non-operative treatment. Early surgery yielded RTPA and RTS rates of 100% (95% CI: 34-100 & 57-100) compared to 100 (95% CI: 72-100) and 90% (95% CI: 60-98) for delayed repair. All included studies have high risk of bias. There is only low level of evidence with a limited number of included patients to compare outcome of operative and non-operative treatment. Overall outcome was satisfactory. There is a treatment selection phenomenon based on displacement, with acceptable outcome in both groups. There is insufficient data to draw conclusions regarding timing of surgery. IV.

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