The majority of cases involving hypercalcemia in the setting of sarcoidosis are explained by the overproduction of calcitriol by activated macrophages. Vitamin D takes part in the regulation of granuloma formation. However, using vitamin D metabolites to assess the activity of the disease is still problematic, and its usefulness is disputable. In some cases, though, a calcium metabolism disorder could be a valuable tool (i.e. as a marker of extrathoracic sarcoidosis). Although sarcoidosis does not cause a decrease in bone mineral density, increased incidence of vertebral deformities is noted. Despite increasing knowledge about calcium homeostasis disorders in patients with sarcoidosis, there is still a need for clear guidelines regarding calcium and vitamin D supplementation in these patients.