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Sapogenol is a Major Microbial Metabolite in Human Plasma Associated with High Protein Soy-Based Diets: The Relevance for Functional Food Formulations

  • neacsu, madalina
  • raikos, vassilios
  • benavides-paz, yara
  • duncan, sylvia h.
  • duncan, gary j.
  • christie, james s.
  • johnstone, alexandra m.
  • russell, wendy r.
Publication Date
Apr 03, 2020
DOI: 10.3390/foods9040422
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Legumes are a source of health-promoting macro- and micronutrients, but also contain numerous phytochemicals with useful biological activities, an example of which are saponins. Epidemiological studies suggest that saponins may play a role in protection from cancer and benefit human health by lowering cholesterol. Therefore, they could represent good candidates for specialised functional foods. Following the consumption of a soya-rich high-protein weight-loss diet (SOYA HP WL), the concentrations of Soyasaponin I (SSI) and soyasapogenol B (SSB) were determined in faecal samples from human volunteers (n = 10) and found to be between 1.4 and 17.5 mg per 100 g fresh faecal sample. SSB was the major metabolite identified in volunteers&rsquo / plasma (n = 10) after consumption of the soya test meal (SOYA MEAL) / the postprandial (3 h after meal) plasma concentration for SSB varied between 48.5 ng/mL to 103.2 ng/mL. The metabolism of SSI by the gut microbiota (in vitro) was also confirmed. This study shows that the main systemic metabolites of soyasaponin are absorbed from the gut and that they are bioavailable in plasma predominantly as conjugates of sapogenol. The metabolism and bioavailability of biologically active molecules represent key information necessary for the efficient development of functional foods.

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