The present volume reports the proceedings of a conference that took place in Stockholm in September 2003. It was a joint venture, which associated the department of Economic History at Stockholm University, as a host of the event, and the International Comparison research unit at INED, as a co-ordinator of the preparatory and editing activities. The two institutions channelled the necessary funding. The introductory text by Marie Digoix is entitled “Paths towards equality...” It is probably the most elegant and concise answer to those who would wonder about the interest historians could take in the conference. Recognition of rights to the homosexuals has been a long way and often a tough fight along the 20th century, which have involved intellectuals, activists, politicians, etc. and which have shared a lot of similarities with movements towards the recognition of women’s rights, children’s rights, etc. Since 1989 in Denmark, then in other countries, rights have been attached not to individuals but to same-sex couples who register before public authorities, through acts that do not differ formally from birth, death or marriage acts. This publicity has put homosexual partnership under the observation, the numbering and the quantitative analysis by demographers, the same way the “bills of mortality” had opened John Graunt the doors of political arithmetic, the ancestor of demography. This joint initiative by historians and demographers has attracted scholars from a much broader panel of disciplines. Their contributions are compiled here.