Human saliva is an ideal body fluid for developing non-invasive diagnostics. Saliva contains naturally-occurring nanoparticles with unique structural and biochemical characteristics. The salivary exosome, a nanoscale extracellular vesicle, has been identified as a highly informative nanovesicle with clinically-relevant information. Salivary exosomes have brought forth a pathway and mechanism by which cancer-derived biomarkers can be shuttled through the systemic circulation into the oral cavity. Despite such clinical potential, routine and reliable analyses of exosomes remain challenging due to their small sizes. Characterization of individual exosome nanostructures provides critical data for understanding their pathophysiological condition and diagnostic potential. In this review, we summarize a current array of discovered salivary biomarkers and nanostructural properties of salivary exosomes associated with specific cancers. In addition, we describe a novel electrochemical sensing technology, EFIRM (electric field-induced release and measurement), that advances saliva liquid biopsy, covering the current landscape of point-of-care saliva testing.