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Salivary Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders

Authors
  • Ashton, Nicholas J.1, 2, 3, 4
  • Ide, Mark5, 5
  • Zetterberg, Henrik1, 6, 7, 8
  • Blennow, Kaj1, 6
  • 1 The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden , Mölndal (Sweden)
  • 2 Wallenberg Centre for Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden , Gothenburg (Sweden)
  • 3 Maurice Wohl Institute Clinical Neuroscience Institute, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 4 NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health and Biomedical Research Unit for Dementia at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 5 Faculty of Dental, Oral and Craniofacial Sciences, King’s College London, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 6 Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden , Mölndal (Sweden)
  • 7 UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
  • 8 UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, UK , London (United Kingdom)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Neurology and Therapy
Publisher
Springer Healthcare
Publication Date
Dec 12, 2019
Volume
8
Issue
Suppl 2
Pages
83–94
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s40120-019-00168-1
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
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Abstract

The search for accessible and cost-effective biomarkers to complement current cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and imaging biomarkers in the accurate detection of Alzheimer disease (AD) and other common neurodegenerative disorders remains a challenging task. The advances in ultra-sensitive detection methods has highlighted blood biomarkers (e.g. amyloid-β and neurofilament light) as a valuable and realistic tool in a diagnostic or screening process. Saliva, however, is also a rich source of potential biomarkers for disease detection and offers several practical advantages over biofluids that are currently examined for neurodegenerative disorders. However, while this may be true for the general population, challenges in collecting saliva from an elderly population should be seriously considered. In this review, we begin by discussing how saliva is produced and how age-related conditions can modify saliva production and composition. We then focus on the data available which support the concept of salivary amyloid-β, tau species and novel biomarkers in detecting AD and alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson’s disease (PD).

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