Kaletra, a fixed-dose co-formulation of lopinavir/ritonavir, was the first boosted protease inhibitor developed for the treatment of HIV-infection. In September 2000, the US FDA granted Kaletra fast-track approval as data showed a higher efficacy in the treatment of HIV-infection than standard protease inhibitors of that time. Although potency was of major concern in the early years of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), presently, with the perspective of HIV-infection becoming a chronic but well controllable disease, other issues begin to draw increased attention in the long-term management of HIV-infected patients. Among general health issues such as cardiovascular disease, metabolic disorders or hepatitis co-infection, the long-term toxicity and safety of HAART is an important concern when choosing antiretroviral drugs for each individual patient. In this review, the authors report on the safety of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of HIV-infected patients, and focus on special patient groups and relevant safety issues.