The safety, efficacy and cross-protectivity of a live intranasal aerosol haemorrhagic septicaemia vaccine containing Pasteurella multocida serotype B:3,4 were tested in young cattle and buffaloes in Myanmar, where more than 1.5 million animals had been inoculated with this vaccine between 1989 and 1999. A recommended dose of 2 x 10(7) viable organisms was used for the efficacy test. The administration of 100 times the recommended dose to 50 cattle and 39 buffalo calves was innocuous. Seven months after they were vaccinated, three of three buffaloes were protected and 12 months after they were vaccinated, three of four buffaloes were protected against a subcutaneous challenge with serotype B:2 which killed three of three unvaccinated buffaloes. Twelve months after they were vaccinated, eight of eight cattle survived a serotype B:2 challenge, which killed four of four unvaccinated controls. The vaccinated cattle had developed serum antibodies detectable by the passive mouse protection test. Indirect haemagglutination tests on sera taken from cattle 10 days and five weeks after they were vaccinated showed high titres of antibodies. The serum of vaccinated cattle cross-protected passively immunised mice against infection with P. multocida serotypes E:2, F:3,4 and A:3,4.