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S100 proteins in obesity: liaisons dangereuses.

Authors
  • Riuzzi, Francesca1, 2
  • Chiappalupi, Sara1, 2
  • Arcuri, Cataldo1
  • Giambanco, Ileana1
  • Sorci, Guglielmo1, 2, 3
  • Donato, Rosario4
  • 1 Department of Experimental Medicine, Perugia Medical School, University of Perugia, Piazza Lucio Severi 1, 06132, Perugia, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 2 Interuniversity Institute of Myology (IIM), University of Perugia, 06132, Perugia, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 3 Centro Universitario di Ricerca sulla Genomica Funzionale, University of Perugia, 06132, Perugia, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 4 Department of Experimental Medicine, Perugia Medical School, University of Perugia, Piazza Lucio Severi 1, 06132, Perugia, Italy. [email protected] , (Italy)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2020
Volume
77
Issue
1
Pages
129–147
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00018-019-03257-4
PMID: 31363816
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Obesity is an endemic pathophysiological condition and a comorbidity associated with hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. The adipose tissue of obese subjects shows hypertrophic adipocytes, adipocyte hyperplasia, and chronic low-grade inflammation. S100 proteins are Ca2+-binding proteins exclusively expressed in vertebrates in a cell-specific manner. They have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of functions acting as intracellular Ca2+ sensors transducing the Ca2+ signal and extracellular factors affecting cellular activity via ligation of a battery of membrane receptors. Certain S100 proteins, namely S100A4, the S100A8/S100A9 heterodimer and S100B, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity-promoting macrophage-based inflammation via toll-like receptor 4 and/or receptor for advanced glycation end-products ligation. Also, serum levels of S100A4, S100A8/S100A9, S100A12, and S100B correlate with insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, metabolic risk score, and fat cell size. Yet, secreted S100B appears to exert neurotrophic effects on sympathetic fibers in brown adipose tissue contributing to the larger sympathetic innervation of this latter relative to white adipose tissue. In the present review we first briefly introduce S100 proteins and then critically examine their role(s) in adipose tissue and obesity.

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