China has a long history of smoking behavior. Currently, nearly 26% of Chinese citizens smoke daily. This research used a nationally representative database to study the urban and rural disparities on smoking patterns applying the social-ecological model. Using the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey, the study sample included adult participants who were at least 18 years of age (n = 12,688). A subanalysis was carried out to investigate smoking cessation duration among smoking quitters (n = 519). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine participants' smoking status. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression was applied to investigate participants' number of cigarettes smoked per day, and multivariable logistic regression was used to examine nondaily smoking behavior. Negative binomial regression was carried out to assess the duration of smoking cessation for individuals who quit smoking. Urban residents had lower odds of reporting current smoking status (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] = 0.83, 95% CI [0.74, 0.95]) as compared to rural residents. Urban residents also had higher odds of reporting nondaily smoking status (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI [1.04, 1.32]) and smoked fewer cigarettes per day (IRR [incidence rate ratio] = 0.93, 95% CI [0.89, 0.98]) as compared to rural participants. The disparity between urban and rural areas was not observed for smoking cessation duration. Further efforts should target the disparity between urban and rural regions regarding smoking prevention.