The objectives of rural development are clear -- to improve the economic and social life of the rural poor -- but there remains some uncertainty about the contents of this strategy. To formulate rural development strategies it is necessary to ask and answer what may be termed the "what" and "how" questions. The "what" questions are concerned with the types of activities that must be undertaken in order to reach the rural poor and develop their human potential. The "how" questions are concerned with devising the means for implementing rural development programs. The real issues in rural development at this time are concerned with formulating and answering the "what" and "how" questions. The perceptions of what should be done is dependent upon an estimate of the magnitude of rural poverty and the way in which its nature is understood. There is increasing evidence to suggest that even when women are identified as a separate target group, the programs designed to reach them may offer little help. Organizations are essential for promoting equity within societies. For the underprivileged segments of the society to find a voice in the decision-making process, they need to overcome the inhibiting influence of the elite. The inability to participate in the production process to the extent that it would yield to their social, economic and political satisfaction is pushing many rural poor to migrate.