Drawing on the experience of a state-sponsored rural development project, referred to as the Eagle River project, this article considers feminism and gender issues in rural Brazil, where agriculture is one of the livelihood strategies of poor men and women. Section 1 offers an overview of the project and the project area. Section 2 describes the lives of women in the Eagle River region where traditional values on division of labor, domestic roles of women, and gender hierarchies are still predominant. Section 3 highlights the objective of the project and activities designed to achieve its aim. Three main areas of work are being focused: community development, production development, and provision of rural credit. The project structure and decision-making powers are discussed in section 4. Sections 5 and 6 describe experiences in the project during its first 18 months and the challenges of incorporating gender into the project. Section 7 focuses on the development of the gender program. Section 8 outlines lessons learned out of the project outcome and the final section contains concluding messages.