The study attempts to detect and discuss the most urgently needed changes, as to resource distribution, production methods and supporting services in Brazilian agriculture. For that, it was necessary to describe and evaluate the existing situation in rural Brazil, a task taken up in the first part of the study. Discussion covers production factors, the place of agriculture in the national economy of Brazil and the general aspects of agricultural production. A series of tables and diagrams shows the production per state and the trends in area and average yield for the period 1939-1949 for the most important products.Part two of the study considers some well defined problems and inadequacies of the existing situation in agriculture in more detail. The most urgently needed improvements in the production of some important crops are enumerrated.For some problems and inadequacies, solutions are suggested and an attempt is made to assess the consequences of modernization in Brazilian agriculture.