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Runoff of the Tire-Wear Compound, Hexamethoxymethyl-Melamine into Urban Watersheds

  • Johannessen, Cassandra1
  • Helm, Paul2
  • Metcalfe, Chris D.1
  • 1 Trent University,
  • 2 Ontario Ministry of Environment, Conservation and Parks,
Published Article
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Springer US
Publication Date
Jan 30, 2021
DOI: 10.1007/s00244-021-00815-5
PMID: 33515272
PMCID: PMC7846915
PubMed Central
  • Article


Hexamethoxymethyl-melamine (HMMM) is used as a crosslinking agent in resins and plastics and in the manufacture of tires. In the present study, surface water samples were collected from two rivers adjacent to high traffic highways in the Greater Toronto Area in Ontario, Canada. Composite samples collected from the Don River and Highland Creek during rain events and a period of rapid snowmelt were preconcentrated using solid phase extraction and analyzed using liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry. Elevated concentrations (> 1 µg/L) of HMMM were detected in surface waters during rain events in October of 2019 and during snow melt in early March of 2020. There were lower average concentrations of HMMM detected during rain events in the winter and spring of 2020. Temporal profiles of changes in the concentrations of HMMM in composite samples collected every 3 h during a rain event in October 2019 closely corresponded to the hydrograph profiles at the sampling sites, with the HMMM concentrations peaking > 6 h after the peak in water levels. This work contributes to the literature showing that HMMM is a ubiquitous contaminant of urban watersheds and that runoff from roads is a vector for the transport of this compound into urban surface waters. Supplementary Information The online version of this article (10.1007/s00244-021-00815-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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