Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a master regulator of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) metabolism, acting as an endogenous inhibitor of the LDL receptor. While it has been shown that bariatric surgery differentially affects plasma LDL-C levels, little is known of its effects on plasma PCSK9 concentrations. Therefore, the present study aimed to: (i) investigate the effect of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on plasma PCSK9 concentrations; and (ii) correlate baseline or postoperative plasma PCSK9 concentration variations with anthropometric and metabolic parameters. Fasting plasma PCSK9 levels were measured by ELISA in morbidly obese patients before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Patients were recruited from three prospective cohorts (in Nantes and Colombes in France, and Antwerp in Belgium). A total of 156 patients (34SG, 122RYGB) were included. Plasma PCSK9, LDL-C and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels were significantly reduced after RYGB (-19.6%, -16.6% and -19.5%, respectively; P<0.0001), but not after SG. In all patients, postoperative PCSK9 change was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG; r=0.22, P=0.007), HOMA-IR (r=0.24, P=0.005), total cholesterol (r=0.17, P=0.037) and non-HDL-C (r=0.17, P=0.038) variations, but not LDL-C. In contrast to what was observed for glucose parameters (FPG, HOMA-IR), correlation between PCSK9 and non-HDL-C changes after RYGB was independent of total weight loss. RYGB, but not SG, promotes a significant reduction in plasma PCSK9 levels, and such changes in circulating PCSK9 levels after RYGB appear to be more associated with glucose improvement than with lipid homoeostasis parameters. Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.