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ROS-Scavengers, Osmoprotectants and Violaxanthin De-Epoxidation in Salt-Stressed Arabidopsis thaliana with Different Tocopherol Composition

Authors
  • surówka;, ewa
Publication Date
Oct 21, 2021
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/ijms222111370
OAI: oai:mdpi.com:/1422-0067/22/21/11370/
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

To determine the role of α- and γ-tocopherol (TC), this study compared the response to salt stress (200 mM NaCl) in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. And its two mutants: (1) totally TC-deficient vte1; (2) vte4 accumulating γ-TC instead of α-TC; and (3) tmt transgenic line overaccumulating α-TC. Raman spectra revealed that salt-exposed α-TC accumulating plants were more flexible in regulating chlorophyll, carotenoid and polysaccharide levels than TC deficient mutants, while the plants overaccumulating γ-TC had the lowest levels of these biocompounds. Tocopherol composition and NaCl concentration affected xanthophyll cycle by changing the rate of violaxanthin de-epoxidation and zeaxanthin formation. NaCl treated plants with altered TC composition accumulated less oligosaccharides than WT plants. α-TC deficient plants increased their oligosaccharide levels and reduced maltose amount, while excessive accumulation of α-TC corresponded with enhanced amounts of maltose. Salt-stressed TC-deficient mutants and tmt transgenic line exhibited greater proline levels than WT plants, lower chlorogenic acid levels, and lower activity of catalase and peroxidases. α-TC accumulating plants produced more methylated proline- and glycine- betaines, and showed greater activity of superoxide dismutase than γ-TC deficient plants. Under salt stress, α-TC demonstrated a stronger regulatory effect on carbon- and nitrogen-related metabolites reorganization and modulation of antioxidant patterns than γ-TC. This suggested different links of α- and γ-TCs with various metabolic pathways via various functions and metabolic loops.

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