This outcome assessor-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of electroacupuncture combined with computer-based cognitive rehabilitation (EA-CCR) on mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A per-protocol analysis was employed to compare the efficacy of EA-CCR to that of computer-based cognitive rehabilitation (CCR). Thirty-two patients with MCI completed the trial (EA-CCR group, 16; CCR group, 16). Patients received EA-CCR or CCR treatment once daily three days per week for eight weeks. Outcome (primary, ADAS-K-cog; secondary, MoCA-K, CES-D, K-ADL, K-IADL, and EQ-5D-5L) measurements were performed at baseline (week 0), at the end of the intervention (week 8), and at 12 weeks after completion of the intervention (week 20). Both groups showed significant changes in ADAS-K-cog score (EA-CCR, p < 0.001; CCR, p < 0.001) and MoCA-K (EA-CCR, p < 0.001; CCR, p < 0.001). Only the EA-CCR group had a significant change in CES-D (p = 0.024). No significant differences in outcomes and in the results of a subanalysis based on age were noted between the groups. These results indicate that EA-CCR and CCR have beneficial effects on improving cognitive function in patients with MCI. However, electroacupuncture in EA-CCR showed no positive add-on effects on improving cognitive function, depression, activities of daily living, and quality of life in patients with MCI.