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Role of rotavirus vaccination on G9P[8] rotavirus strain during a seasonal outbreak in Japan.

  • Kawata, Kimiko1
  • Hoque, Sheikh Ariful2, 3
  • Nishimura, Shuichi4
  • Yagyu, Fumihiro2
  • Islam, Mohammad Tajul5
  • Sharmin, Laila Shamima6
  • Pham, Ngan Thi Kim2
  • Onda-Shimizu, Yuko2
  • Quang, Trinh Duy2
  • Takanashi, Sayaka7
  • Okitsu, Shoko2
  • Khamrin, Pattara8
  • Maneekarn, Niwat8
  • Hayakawa, Satoshi2
  • Ushijima, Hiroshi2
  • 1 Division on Nursing Sciences, Midwifery, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 2 Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Nihon University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 3 Cell and Tissue Culture Research, Centre for Advanced Research in Sciences (CARS), University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh. , (Bangladesh)
  • 4 Nishimura Pediatric Clinic, Kyoto, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 5 Save the Children, Bangladesh. , (Bangladesh)
  • 6 Department of Pediatrics, Rajshahi Medical College, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. , (Bangladesh)
  • 7 Department of Developmental Medical Sciences, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 8 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Emerging and Re-emerging Diarrheal Viruses Research Center, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. , (Thailand)
Published Article
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Informa UK (Taylor & Francis)
Publication Date
Oct 03, 2021
DOI: 10.1080/21645515.2021.1925060
PMID: 34033735


Although two live oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, play a critical role toward reducing disease severity, hospitalization, and death rate in RV infections, regular monitoring of vaccine effectiveness (VE) is yet necessary because the segmented genome structure and reassortment capability of RVs pose considerable threats toward waning VE. In this study, we examined the VE by a test-negative study design against G9P[8]I2 strain during a seasonal outbreak in February-May, 2018, in an outpatient clinic in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. It remains important because G9P[8]I2 strain remains partially heterotypic to these vaccines and predominating in post-vaccination era. During year-long surveillance, RV infections were detected only from February to May. During this outbreak, 33 (42.3%) children out of 78 with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) remained RV-positive, of which 29 (87.8%) children were infected with G9P[8]I2. Two immunochromatographic (IC) assay kits exhibited 100% sensitivity and specificity to detect G9P[8]I2 strain. Only 23.2% children were found to be vaccinated. Yet, significant VE 69.7% (95% CI: 2.5%-90.6%) was recognized against all RV strains that increased with disease severity. Similar significant VE 71.8% (95% CI: 1%-92%) was determined against G9P[8]I2 strain. The severity score remained substantially low in vaccinated children. Our data reveal that vaccine-preventable G9P[8]I2 strain yet may cause outbreak where vaccination coverage remains low. Thus, this study emphasizes the necessity of global introduction of RV-vaccines in national immunization programs of every country.

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