Purpose of ReviewFor patients with early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), thermal ablation (TA) has become in the least two decades an option of treatment used worldwide for patients with comorbidities who are not surgical candidates. Here, we review data published with different TA techniques: radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA) and cryoablation. This paper reviews also the comparison that has been made between TA and stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT).Recent FindingsA majority of retrospective studies, the absence of comparative studies, and the variety of techniques make difficult to get evident data. Nevertheless, these stand-alone techniques have demonstrated local efficacy for tumors less than 3 cm and good tolerance on fragile patients. Many recent reviews and database analyses show that outcomes after TA (mainly RFA and MWA) are comparable to SBRT in terms of survival rates.SummaryFor patients who are unfit for surgery, TA has demonstrated interesting results for safety, benefits in overall survival, and acceptable local control.