Oat (Avena sativa L.) groats were labeled with radioactive leucine and salt-soluble proteins were extracted and analyzed. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by fluorography indicated two radioactive polypeptides with molecular weight 58 to 62 kilodaltons which were similar in size to unreduced globulin α-β dimers. The role of endoplasmic reticulum in the synthesis of these globulin polypeptides was investigated by in vivo and in vitro protein synthesis studies. Labeled tissue was fractionated by centrifugation and rough endoplasmic reticulum was isolated. Two polypeptides which had molecular weights of 58 to 62 kilodaltons and were immunoprecipitable with antiglobulin immunoglobulin G were found to be transiently associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, as well as membrane-bound polysomes, directed the in vitro synthesis of two polypeptides with molecular weight 58 to 62 kilodaltons corresponding in size to unreduced α-β dimers and could be immunoprecipitated with antiglobulin immunoglobulin G. The translation products of free polysomes did not show this. In pulse-labeling, globulin polypeptides with molecular weight 58 to 62 kilodaltons, as well as the α + β subunits, were labeled in protein bodies.