Obinutuzumab (G) is a humanized type II, Fc-glycoengineered anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody used in various indications, including patients with previously untreated front-line follicular lymphoma. We investigated sources of variability in G exposure and association of progression-free survival (PFS) with average concentration over induction (CmeanIND ) in front-line follicular lymphoma patients treated with G plus chemotherapy (bendamustine, CHOP, or CVP) in the GALLIUM trial. Individual exposures (CmeanIND ) were obtained from a previously established population pharmacokinetic model updated with GALLIUM data. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models and univariate Kaplan-Meier plots investigated relationships of PFS with exposure and other potential prognostic factors. Overall, G exposure was lower in high body-weight patients and in males, and slightly lower in patients with high baseline tumour burden. Analysis of clinical outcomes showed that variability in G exposure did not impact PFS in G-bendamustine-treated patients; PFS was inferior in males and patients with FCGR2a/2b T232 T low-affinity receptor variant, and superior in patients with FCGR2a/2b I232T variant. In G-CHOP/CVP arms, PFS improved with increasing CmeanIND (hazard ratio = 1.74 and 0.394 at 5th and 95th percentile compared to median CmeanIND ) and was inferior in patients with high baseline tumour size and B symptoms. It remains unclear whether for G-CHOP/CVP patients lower G exposure is a consequence of adverse disease biology and/or resistance to chemotherapy backbone (higher clearance in nonresponder patients, as demonstrated for rituximab) rather than being the cause of poorer clinical outcome. A study with >1 dose level of G could help resolve this uncertainty. © 2019 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.