MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNA molecules that have an important role in modulating the expression of genes involved in regulating cellular functions. A growing number of studies suggest the abnormal expression of microRNAs in different types of cancer cells. MiRNA-124 is a microRNA that is down-regulated in many types of cancer cells, including bladder cancer. Our objective is to provide a review of the key publications that studied the effect of miR-124 on bladder cancer. This review focus on the targets and different pathways of miR-124 that were identified in various studies and differences between their expressions in normal urothelium and tumor tissues. We also include data regarding urinary methylations levels of miR-124 and their role in bladder cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Subsequently, we establish future perspectives of miR-124 research and its promising role in bladder cancer.