Mucociliary clearance, mediated by a coordinated function of cilia bathing in the airway surface liquid (ASL) on the surface of airway epithelium, protects the host from inhaled pathogens and is an essential component of the innate immunity. ASL is composed of the superficial mucus layer and the deeper periciliary liquid. Ion channels, transporters, and pumps coordinate the transcellular and paracellular movement of ions and water to maintain the ASL volume and mucus hydration. microRNA (miRNA) is a class of non-coding, short single-stranded RNA regulating gene expression by post-transcriptional mechanisms. miRNAs have been increasingly recognized as essential regulators of ion channels and transporters responsible for ASL homeostasis. miRNAs also influence the airway host defense. We summarize the most up-to-date information on the role of miRNAs in ASL homeostasis and host&ndash / pathogen interactions in the airway and discuss concepts for miRNA-directed therapy.