Role of metabosensitive afferent fibers in neuromuscular adaptive mechanisms. Adaptation to exercise is provided by central neuron activity adjustments which are regulated partly by activation of group I and II (mechanosensitive) and group III and IV (metabosentitive) afferent fibers. These last two groups are activated by exercise-induced changes in muscle metabolism. The role played by these afferents seems to be crucial to exercise and fatigue tolerance adaptive mechanisms. Nevertheless, many questions remain unresolved. The aim of this review is to focus on the involvement of metabosensitivity in sensorimotor loops and neuromuscular adaptive mechanisms. The existence of an adaptive cardiovascular and respiratory reflex to exercise originating from metabosensitive afferent fiber activation is well established. Furthermore, the mechanism of skeletal muscle protection against fatigue could be due to modulation of central motor command at the spinal and supraspinal levels via these afferent fibers.