Mass spectrometry (MS) is an important tool in modern protein chemistry. In proteome analyses the expression of hundreds or thousands of proteins can be monitored at the same time. First, complex protein mixtures are separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and then individual proteins are identified by using MS followed by database searches. Recent developments in this field have made it possible to do automated, high-throughput protein identification that is needed in proteome analyses. MS can also be used to characterize post-translational modifications in proteins and to study protein complexes. This review will introduce the current MS methods used in proteome studies, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. New instrumental MS developments are also presented that are useful in these analyses.