We investigated the clinical significance of leukotriene D4 (LTD4) in nasal symptoms of allergy and compared this with antigen and histamine. Nasal provocations were carried out in patients with allergic rhinitis using serially increasing doses of LTD4, histamine, or antigen. The nasal responses induced were evaluated by counting the number of sneezes, the quantity of nasal secretion, and of nasal airway resistance. When the effects of topical provoking agents were compared at the threshold concentration, LTD4 produced no sneezing--unlike antigen and histamine--increased nasal secretion to a lesser degree than antigen and histamine (P less than .001), and increased nasal airway resistance similar to histamine but less than antigen (P less than .1) and longer than histamine, and similar to antigen in duration. LTD4 was approximately 5,000 times stronger than histamine in threshold concentration for nasal response. In conclusion, LTD4 plays an important role in nasal allergy presumably through long lasting and strong nasal blockage effects.