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Role of intestinal glucose absorption in glucose tolerance.

Authors
  • Wu, Tongzhi1
  • Rayner, Christopher K2
  • Jones, Karen L3
  • Xie, Cong4
  • Marathe, Chinmay3
  • Horowitz, Michael3
  • 1 Adelaide Medical School and Centre of Research Excellence (CRE) in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia; Endocrine and Metabolic Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia; Institute of Diabetes, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Australia)
  • 2 Adelaide Medical School and Centre of Research Excellence (CRE) in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 3 Adelaide Medical School and Centre of Research Excellence (CRE) in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia; Endocrine and Metabolic Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia. , (Australia)
  • 4 Adelaide Medical School and Centre of Research Excellence (CRE) in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. , (Australia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Current opinion in pharmacology
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2020
Volume
55
Pages
116–124
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.coph.2020.10.017
PMID: 33227625
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Intestinal glucose absorption is integral to postprandial glucose homeostasis. Glucose absorption is dependent on a number of factors, including the exposure of carbohydrate to the mucosa of the upper gastrointestinal tract (determined particularly by the rates of gastric emptying and small intestinal transit), the digestion of complex carbohydrate into monosaccharides, and glucose sensing and transport by the intestinal mucosa. The absorption of glucose in the small intestine is not only a determinant of the appearance of exogenous glucose in the peripheral circulation, but is also coupled to the release of gastrointestinal hormones that in turn influence postprandial glucose metabolism through modulating gastrointestinal motor function, insulin and glucagon secretion, and subsequent energy intake. This review describes the physiology and pathophysiology of intestinal glucose absorption in health and type 2 diabetes, including its relevance to glucose tolerance and the management of postprandial hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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