We evaluated mainly the iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) and nNOS (neuronal NOS) expression in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in young adult (8-week-old) and aged (60-week-old) mice. The present study demonstrates that the expression of nNOS was more pronounced than that of iNOS expression in the dentate gyrus of aged mice. Our study also suggests that aged mice exhibited a significant loss of motor activity as compared with young adult animals. Furthermore, our results provide that no significant change in the number of Neu N (Neuronal nuclei)-immunopositive neurons and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein)-immunopositive astrocytes was observed in the dentate gyrus between young adult and aged mice. In contrast, a significant change in the number of Iba 1(ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1)-immunopositive microglia in aged mice was observed in the dentate gyrus as compared to young adult animals. These results provide the novel evidence showing that the expression of nNOS may be crucial for the role of neurogenesis of the SGZ of the dentate gyrus in aged mice. Furthermore, our present findings demonstrate that the inhibition of nNOS expression in the SGZ of the dentate gyrus during aging processes may offer novel therapeutic strategies for anti-aging in humans.