Clinical manifestations of liver transplantation complications can be subtle and non-specific. Medical imaging, mainly Doppler ultrasound, plays an important role to detect and grade these. Colour Doppler ultrasound exams are routinely performed at 24–48 h, on the 7th day, the first and third month after transplantation. MDCT and MR images are acquired based on the Doppler ultrasound (DUS) findings, even in the absence of abnormal liver function. As vascular complications appear early after surgery, DUS should be performed by experience personnel. Diagnostic angiography is seldom performed. This pictorial review illustrates the key imaging findings of vascular complications in patients with liver transplantation: hepatic artery complications (such as thrombosis, stenosis of the anastomosis and pseudoaneurysms), portal vein abnormalities (such as occlusion and stenosis) and hepatic veins and/or inferior vena cava flow changes (Budd-Chiari syndrome).