Because of his knowledge, skills and activities, a man is a causative factor for most processes occurring in modern organizations, and may influence the level of their safety. The ingenuity and creative commitment of a man determines his ability to create and implement innovative solutions, to develop himself and the organization and thus, to reduce business risk. Human resources are one of the factors that positively affect the location of Poland on the EU map of innovation. The aim of this article, on the background of the definitional aspects of innovation and its measurement with the SII index, is to address the issue of the role of these resources in building an innovative position of Poland. Data characterizing the Polish economy were compared with the results of EU countries.