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The role of FRIGIDA and FLOWERING LOCUS C genes in flowering time of Brassica rapa leafy vegetables

  • Takada, Satoko1
  • Akter, Ayasha1
  • Itabashi, Etsuko2
  • Nishida, Namiko1
  • Shea, Daniel J.3
  • Miyaji, Naomi1
  • Mehraj, Hasan1
  • Osabe, Kenji4
  • Shimizu, Motoki5
  • Takasaki-Yasuda, Takeshi1
  • Kakizaki, Tomohiro2
  • Okazaki, Keiichi3
  • Dennis, Elizabeth S.6, 7
  • Fujimoto, Ryo1
  • H. Mehraj
Published Article
Scientific Reports
Springer Nature
Publication Date
Sep 24, 2019
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-50122-2
Springer Nature


There is a wide variation of flowering time among lines of Brassica rapa L. Most B. rapa leafy (Chinese cabbage etc.) or root (turnip) vegetables require prolonged cold exposure for flowering, known as vernalization. Premature bolting caused by low temperature leads to a reduction in the yield/quality of these B. rapa vegetables. Therefore, high bolting resistance is an important breeding trait, and understanding the molecular mechanism of vernalization is necessary to achieve this goal. In this study, we demonstrated that BrFRIb functions as an activator of BrFLC in B. rapa. We showed a positive correlation between the steady state expression levels of the sum of the BrFLC paralogs and the days to flowering after four weeks of cold treatment, suggesting that this is an indicator of the vernalization requirement. We indicate that BrFLCs are repressed by the accumulation of H3K27me3 and that the spreading of H3K27me3 promotes stable FLC repression. However, there was no clear relationship between the level of H3K27me3 in the BrFLC and the vernalization requirement. We also showed that if there was a high vernalization requirement, the rate of repression of BrFLC1 expression following prolonged cold treatments was lower.

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