Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), collectively referred to as recurrent reproductive failure (RRF), are both challenging conditions with many unanswered questions relating to causes and management options. Both conditions are proposed to be related to an aberrant endometrial microenvironment, with different proposed aetiologies related to a restrictive or permissive endometrium for an invading embryo. The impressive regenerative capacity of the human endometrium has been well-established and has led to the isolation and characterisation of several subtypes of endometrial stem/progenitor cells (eSPCs). eSPCs are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of endometrium-related disorders (such as endometriosis) and have been proposed to be implicated in the pathogenesis of RRF. This review appraises the current knowledge of eSPCs, and their involvement in RRF, highlighting the considerable unknown aspects in this field, and providing avenues for future research to facilitate much-needed advances in the diagnosis and management of millions of women suffering with RRF.