The purpose of this paper was to investigate the role and mechanism of EEF1D in various diseases, especially in tumorigenesis and development, and explore the possibility of EEF1D as a biological target. EEF1D is a part of the EEF1 protein complex, which can produce four protein isoforms, of which three short isoforms are used as translation elongation factors. The three short isoforms play a role in anti-aging, regulating the cell cycle, and promoting the occurrence and development of malignant tumors, and the only long-form isoform plays a role in the development of the nervous system. We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases for literature up to January 2021 using relevant keywords, including "EEF1D", "eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta", "translation elongation factor", "translation elongation factor and cancer", and "translation elongation factor and nervous system disease". We then created an overview of the literature and summarized the results of the paper. Through the review of relevant articles, we found that EEF1D is obviously overexpressed in a variety of tumors, and can regulate the proliferation of tumor cells and tumor growth, as well as play a role in tumor invasion. EEF1D is likely to become a new biological target for tumor therapy and diagnosis. 2021 Annals of Translational Medicine. All rights reserved.