To identify textural features on dual-energy CT (DECT)-based bone marrow images in myeloma which correlate with serum markers of myeloma activity and the degree of medullary involvement. A total of 110 patients (63.0 ± 11.0 years, 51 female) who underwent unenhanced whole-body DECT between September 2015 and February 2019 were retrospectively included, which was approved by our institutional ethics committee with a waiver of the informed consent requirement. All patients had current hematologic laboratory tests. Using DECT post-processing, non-calcium bone marrow images were reconstructed. The vertebral bodies T10-L5 were segmented for quantification of textural features, which were compared with serologic parameters and myeloma stages by the Mann-Whitney U test. In a subgroup of 56/110 patients with current bone marrow biopsies, textural features were correlated with the degree of bone marrow infiltration. First-order features were higher in patients with advanced stage of myeloma (p < .02), whereas the 2nd-order "gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) cluster prominence" was lower (p < .04). In patients with elevated serum-free light chains (SFLC) or kappa/lambda SFLC ratio above 1.56, the "entropy" and 2nd-order GLCM features were lower (p < .03). The degree of bone marrow infiltration correlated with 1st-order features (e.g., "uniformity"; rP = 0.49; p < .0001), whereas "entropy" and 2nd-order GLCM features were negatively correlated (e.g., "difference entropy"; rP = - 0.54; p < .0001). CT textural features applied on non-calcium bone marrow images correlate well with myeloma-related serologic parameters and histology showing a more uniform tissue structure and higher attenuation with increasing medullary infiltration and could therefore be used as additional imaging biomarkers for non-invasive assessment of medullary involvement. • Texture analysis applied on dual-energy reconstructed non-calcium bone marrow images provides information about marrow structure and attenuation. • Myeloma-related serologic parameters and the degree of myeloma cell infiltration correlate with 1st- and 2nd-order features which could be useful as additional imaging biomarkers for non-invasive assessment of medullary involvement.