Our findings provide insight into Dutch dairy farmers’ behavior and mindset toward mastitis management, and into the way these can be affected by communication strategies. They may differ from those of North American dairy farmers, but probably many findings are comparable. Elements of farmer mindset are important determining factors in mastitis control, including the perceived threat (ie, “Do I have a problem?”) and the perceived efficacy of mastitis management measures (ie, “Can I solve the problem easily?”). These issues need to be addressed in communication strategies. Veterinarians can be important intermediaries in communication about udder health, provided that they are aware of their role as proactive advisor and apply the accompanying communication skills. To be effective, a mastitis control program should do more than distributing technical information about best management practices to dairy farmers. Prevention of complex diseases such as mastitis requires customized communication strategies as well as an integrated approach between various stakeholders and different scientific disciplines. Because farmers are part of, and are influenced by a wide institutional context, such programs need to be supported by a combination of several policy measures to change farm management in the long run.