Compaction of the genomic DNA into the chromatin structure reduces the accessibility of DNAbinding protein sites and complicates the realization of replication and transcription. In the cell, the negative effects of DNA condensation into chromatin are overcome by recruiting the complexes that change the chromatin structure and are involved in the regulation of transcription and replication. The chromatin remodeling process includes the alteration of nucleosome position and chromatin density and changes in the histone composition of the nucleosomes. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling is performed by enzymes—chromatin remodeling complexes. The united activity of these enzymes forms the dynamic properties of chromatin during different nuclear processes such as transcription, replication, DNA repair, homological recombination, and chromatin assembly. In this review, we summarize the currently available data on the structure of chromatin remodeling complexes of different families, the pathways of their recruitment to certain chromatin sites, and their functional activity.