Salivary gland tumor aspiration cytology is a useful preoperative test to guide the most appropriate clinical and surgical management for these patients. Although salivary gland cytology is often useful to distinguish between non-neoplastic lesions, benign neoplasms and malignant neoplasms, there remain many challenges in this area. Specifically, these tumors are uncommon and may have considerable morphologic overlap, especially in the setting of a malignant tumor. This article reviews some of the immunohistochemical and molecular characteristics of more common salivary gland neoplasms that pathologists and cytotechnologists may encounter. When used in combination with morphologic features, such ancillary testing can be useful to further refine the differential diagnosis, more strongly favor a particular entity, or in some instances confidently provide a specific diagnosis.