To study the role of the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the susceptibility and prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we recruited 344 patients with NSCLC, of which 141 had undergone surgical resection and post-surgery follow up. For controls, there were 264 healthy volunteers for the control group, matched in age and sex with the NSCLC patients. Genotyping of SNPs in the ADIPOQ gene, namely, rs266729 (11365C>G); rs822395 (4034A>C); rs822396 (3964A>G); rs2241766 (+45T>G) were performed. Of all SNPs in the ADIPOQ gene, only the TT genotype and T allele frequency of the rs2241766 were more prevalent in NSCLC subjects than in controls. The TT genotype of rs2241766 was significantly associated with susceptibility to NSCLC before and after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. In the survival analyses of subjects receiving surgical resection, only the SNPs of rs2241766 were significantly related to overall survival of NSCLC. Our results suggest that the SNP rs2241766 of the ADIPOQ gene may determine both susceptibility to NSCLC, and the prognosis for those who underwent surgical treatment.