A photovoltaic system generates energy that depends on the environmental conditions such as temperature, irradiance and the variations in the load connected to it. To adapt to the consistently increasing interest of energy, the photovoltaic (PV) system must operate at maximum power point (MPP), however, it has the issue of low efficiency because of the varying climatic conditions. To increase its efficiency, a maximum power point technique is required to extract maximum power from the PV system. In this paper, a nonlinear fast and efficient maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technique is developed based on the robust integral backstepping (RIB) approach to harvest maximum power from a PV array using non-inverting DC-DC buck-boost converter. The study uses a NeuroFuzzy network to generate the reference voltage for MPPT. Asymptotic stability of the whole system is verified using Lyapunov stability criteria. The MATLAB/Simulink platform is used to test the proposed controller performance under varying meteorological conditions. The simulation results validate that the proposed controller effectively improves the MPPT in terms of tracking speed and efficiency. For further validation of the proposed controller performance, a comparative study is presented with backstepping controller, integral backstepping, robust backstepping and conventional MPPT algorithms (PID and P& / O) under rapidly varying environmental conditions.