A methodology for hazard investigation based on the integration of a mathematical model approach into hazard and operability analysis is presented. This approach is based on mathematical modelling of a process unit where both steady-state analysis, including analysis of the steady states multiplicity and stability, and dynamic simulation are used. The dynamic simulation serves for the investigation of consequences of failures of the main controlled parameters, i.e. inlet temperature, feed temperature and feed composition. This simulation is also very useful for the determination of the influence of failure duration on the reactor behaviour. On the other hand, the steady state simulation can predict the reactor behaviour in a wide range of failure magnitude and determine the parametric zones, where shifting from one steady state to another one may occur. A fixed bed reactor for methyl tertiary-butyl ether synthesis was chosen to identify potential hazard and operational problems of a real process.